Tag Archives: do-178

AFuzion In Korea: YB Cho Presents AFuzion’s DO-178C / DO-254 Gap Analysis in Seoul

7 Jul

Mr. YB Cho of SOaR in Korea presented AFuzion’s DO-178C and DO-254 Services at Korea’s largest aerospace conference – July 2019. Say’s Mr. Cho “AFuzion’s world-reknowned DO-178C, DO-254, and ARP4754A services are well received and deployed in Korea. SOaR is pleased to be working with AFuzion bringing even more avionics certification services to Korea.” Additional details are found on the AFuzion homepage: https://afuzion.com/

Mr. YB Cho in Seoul Presenting AFuzion’s Solutions in Seoul’s largest aviation conference

Korea is a strong and growing aviation market, serving both military and civil aviation. Koreans favor DO-178C cost-efficiency and DO-254 fast time to market, so AFuzion’s ready-made DO-178C and DO-254 Templates for Plans, Standards, and Checklists are ideally suited to the Korean market. Korean companies have strong engineering, but appreciate AFuzion’s DO-254 Gap Analysis and DO-178C Gap Analysis to understand and then optimally close those gaps. Additional AFuzion Gap Analysis details are found here: https://afuzion.com/gap-analysis/

Adds AFuzion’s Vance Hilderman “AFuzion travels frequently to Korea, China, Singapore, Japan, and Malaysia to work with our clients there. In Korea, we’re very pleased to have Mr. YB Cho as our colleague. Our old technical whitepapers are widely distributed in Korea from folks who like yesterday’s old technology and don’t have their own, but the new AFuzion avionics development/certification whitepapers are freely downloaded from AFuzion’s site. Koreans (and the rest of the world) prefer the latest DO-178C and DO-254 information which is available freely on AFuzion’s site for download here: https://afuzion.com/avionics-safety-critical-training-whitepapers/

Avionics Engineers: Plan your September Travel to San Diego for America’s Largest Development Conference: DASC 2019 !!

8 Jun

Fellow Avionics Engineers – you likely know last year’s Digital Systems Avionics Conference (DASC) in London drew hundreds of engineers.  This year 2019 is in our own backyard of San Diego, Sept 8-12.  Dozens of technical presentations, plus ½ Day Tutorials on Aviation Systems ARP4754A, Avionics Safety ARP4761, Cyber-Security DO-326A, and Software/UAV’s for DO-178C.

Yes, “on the water” of San Diego’s Mission Bay with ½ price hotel rooms available for a couple more weeks – bring the family and plan your vacation around this one.  I am, so see you there!

Click Here for DASC 2019 Info: https://2019.dasconline.org/

Santa, All We Want For New Year 2019 is … Seven More Avionics Engineers!

4 Jan

OK, time for honesty:  did everyone get what they wanted from Santa Claus ten days ago?!?   Yes, Santa was good for everyone here at AFuzion Inc. with our record-breaking year doubling last year’s $ results.  But one thing (actually seven things) were missing from under the Tree … yes, Engineers.

You see, we’ve been steadily increasing staff here the past five years to keep up with our growing business in 25 countries.  At our December planning meeting, we actually wrote a letter to Santa asking him ” Santa, please bring us 9 more engineers. To start work Jan 7, 2019.”  Really.  Now folks, all of us either have children, know children, or are still children.  My kids even say I’m just a big child during the holidays.  We BELIEVE in Santa Claus. (Santa, are you listening?)  When we were kids, we usually got some of what we wanted.  But this year, Santa only brought us two engineers.  2.  T-W-O.    Santa, can you spell “N I N E”?  As in “9”.  We asked for 9.  We got 2.

Santa, do you not do math at the North Pole?  When Susie or Johnnie ask for a new bike, do you simply bring them one tire?  Yes, the two engineers you brought were great. Really.  Truly.  Top 10% of their field which is our minimum standard.  Thank you Santa.  But again we asked for Nine.  We got TWO …

Santa, if you are listening, we won’t tell anyone if you secretly make another trip to our chimney and bring us seven more engineers.  Yes, these are for the USA so must be USA citizens.  Yes, these are for the western USA so hopefully they want to live in Los Angeles, Phoenix, or Dallas.  Please Santa, if you can’t bring the engineers directly to us, please just send us their contact info or CV to our email at info@afuzion.com.  Otherwise Santa, we’re going to spread the word that you sleep in funny red pajamas and live off cookies, milk, and … reindeer meat.  Santa, really.  Lay off the reindeer – just send us great Engineers please. ASAP!!!

Yours truly,

All the Engineers (Elves) at AFuzion Inc.

AFuzion Releases All-New Requirements Whitepaper for DO-178C, DO-254, and ARP4754A Software, Hardware, and Systems

20 Dec

 

AFuzion Inc. today announces the free availability of its newest technical whitepaper: “Requirements for Safety-Critical & Avionics Software, Hardware, and Systems”.  Previously available only to AFuzion’s 300+ clients, this latest paper is now available for free download from AFuzion’s whitepaper page.   Says Jeff Stevenson, AFuzion’s Business Manager:  “When AFuzion was smaller, we did business with 30-40% of the world’s avionics companies. But now the majority of them are AFuzion’s clients and our  technical papers are so widely distributed it only makes sense to make them fully available to all engineers worldwide.  The key is Safety, combined with efficiency and quality, so we’re adding a little year-end Holiday Cheer and making AFuzion’s latest paper publicly available.”

Adds Vance Hilderman, AFuzion’s Chief Technical Office and the author of this paper: “System, Software, and Hardware requirements are truly the key to safety-critical project success.  As we have taught 20,000 engineers in our AFuzion courses, Requirements development, management, and refinement are the true keys to project success. ARP4754 System requirements, DO-178C software requirements, and DO-254 hardware requirements development is both a science and an art. This paper describes how to build better systems faster and cheaper via Requirements.  Few things in life, or in aviation, are simple. But that truism is.”

This latest AFuzion paper is 14-pages filled with detailed information on creating, managing, refining, and validating requirements. Remember, verification means “does the implementation meet the requirements”, whereas validation asks “and do we have the ‘right’ requirements”.  This AFuzion paper shows why Validation is more important than Verification because without the right requirements, it is largely irrelevant if they are then verified.  Indeed. 

AFuzion has created perhaps the world’s largest library of technical whitepapers for safety-critical and aviation development. AFuzion’s decade’s old papers are still distributed by former employees (with the author’s name accidentally removed and replaced), but all AFuzion’s latest papers are freely available to clients.  Anyone is allowed to download up to two papers for free, so no reason to refer to the decades-old versions passed around elsewhere. 

For a free download, simply click here or go the AFuzion website under Whitepapers: Click Here For Free AFuzion Whitepaper Download

AFuzion Launches New CAST-32A Multi-Core Processing Training

18 Nov

AFuzion’s new CAST-32A Multi-Core Processing for Avionics and Safety-Critical developers has launched with strong acclaim. The future of embedded processing is via multi-core processors as the need for added processing power has surpassed the ability of CPU’s to keep up. However, multi-core processors utilize shared cache, shared memory, and shared communications I/O. This sharing between the MCP cores produces potential interference which can violate the very “determinism” requisite for certifiable safety-critical systems. For example, avionics DO-178C and DO-254 require adherence to CAST-32A recently updated by the worldwide Certification Authorities Software Team (CAST).

CAST-32A is the worldwide (America, Europe, Asia) Certification Authorities Software Team (CAST) guidance for ensuring safe implementation of Multi-Core Processing (MCP) within avionics systems. Increasingly MCP’s are used in avionics and understanding what must be done to plan for, implement, and verify deterministic “safe” MCP development via CAST-32A is the focus of this AFuzion 2-day private training course. Attendees will understand how to utilize multiple-cores providing simultaneous operations using deterministically shared resources such as cache, memory, and communications and performing MCP CAST-32A Interference Analysis. Attendees will also learn how to work with RTOS vendors and RTOS’s themselves to comply with CAST-32A and develop safer avionics.  For a free technical whitepaper on CAST-32A, download here: Click Here for Free AFuzion Technical Whitepaper “Understanding CAST-32A

 

CAST-32A is increasingly relevant to avionics developers but users find it vague and challenging to understand. AFuzion’s 2-day CAST-32A Training teaches attendees how to properly understand, deploy, and verify MCP-based applications. AFuzion’s training was recently provided with our industry partner Lynx Software to 45 senior MCP developers in Huntsville Alabama and it was a resounding success; all the attendees stated it was highly worthwhile and crisply delivered to provide a true practical understanding of CAST-32A deployment for avionics via DO-178C and DO-254. AFuzion’s CAST32A training syllabus is summarized below, with full details at AFuzion’s website, https://afuzion.com/training/cast-32a-multi-core-processing-training/

 

KEY FEATURES:

  • CAST-32A Introduction
  • Summary of DO-178C, for Multi-Core usage
  • RTOS Introduction & Scheduling, Processes, Tasks, and Threads
  • MCP What & Why
  • DO-178C & MCP – Plans, Standards, Activities
  • CAST-32A MCP Robust Partitioning Principles
  • RTOS Specifics – Technical Info
  • DO-254 & MCP
  • MCP Cert, Deadlines, Benchmarks & Reports
  • Overview: IMA, ARP4754A, ARP4761 & MCP
  • IMA & CAST-32A Modules and Partitioning
  • DO-178C’s & MCP Requirements, Design & Verification –
  • MCP & CAST-32A Best Practices for Planning, Testing, & Certification
  • MCP & CAST-32A WCET Mistakes & Best Practices

New Free Tech Webinar Friday, June 8: “Safety, Security, Agile Development: Pick Any 3!”

4 Jun

The most frequent question we get at AFuzion the past year from dozens of clients  is “How do I merge Agile Development into my safety-critical development while ensuring my software meets Security standards???”    If you’re into aviation, automotive, or medical devices, this question has Pass/Fail consequences.  If you’re programming a cappuccino machine, it has consequences … (imagine some hacker changing my espresso machine settings remotely to provide less caffeine in my morning routine (and afternoon; and evening).  TRAGIC!!

So we’re doing something about this, to avert more serious tragedies and enable developers worldwide to better merge AGILE development into their safety and security software.  Really.  This free technical webinar is limited to the first 500 registrants – click here for more info or to register:Free Registration June 7 Tech Webinar “Safety, Security, and AGILE Development – Pick Any Three!”

 

 

Spending Too Many $$ on UAV Certification? New Free 12-Page AFuzion Paper Explains.

6 May

If you’re reading this, you’re likely involved with UAV / UAS / RPV development. New rules for software/hardware UAV compliance to DO-178C and DO-254 are confusing; and expensive.  AFuzion’s new 12-Page technical paper on Reducing DO-178C Costs for UAV’s explains.  Free download links herein; the following is a short synopsis – full details in the free paper.

In the “Good Old Days”, the avionics guideline DO-178B was only informally applied to unmanned systems. But first, let’s clarify: in technology, the “Good Old Days” means 10-20 years ago. In the world of unmanned systems, “Good Old Days” means 5-10 years ago. However, the Good Old Days were rarely as good as they seemed, so the Good Old Days of Unmanned Systems had disadvantages along with those seeming advantages …

AFuzion recently hired four new engineers whose sole focus is UAV certification/compliance. The full 12-page technical paper is available for free download here:  Click Here to Download Free 12-Page Reducing UAV Cert Costs Whitepaper

DO-178B has been replaced with DO-178C, and is now increasingly applied to (and in a growing number of cases, required for) airborne avionics within Unmanned Systems. DO-178C is never cheap, certainly not on the first project. And in clear cases outlined herein, DO-178C can increase costs above DO-178B, which already increased initial avionics development costs by 20-40% itself. But is DO-178C really “too” expensive? Doesn’t it reduce costs over DO-178B for companies who were doing it “right”? Does DO-178C have favorable benefits versus costs over the lifetime of Unmanned Systems? Does DO-178C reduce long-term unmanned costs at the expense of increased development cost? Will DO-178C improve UAV safety and reliability and if so, to what degree? Exactly what benefits are received from complying with DO-178C? These important questions are answered in the AFuzion paper (available by download). An all-too-brief intro follows.

A popular myth is that DO-178C is expensive when applied to UAV’s. Indeed, DO-178C is not “cheap” as clearly the additional costs can be seen above. Level D certified software still has generally full planning, high and low-level requirements, implementation, reviews, and full functional testing of all high-level requirements with traceability applied. Additionally, configuration management, quality assurance, and DER liaison are applied to Level D. Yet the costs of Level D are just 15% higher than medium-quality consumer/financial software developed per typical CMMI Level 2-3 processes. Why? Because Level D is comprised almost entirely of normal industry-standard software engineering principals. Also, many companies new to DO-178C believe their prior, existing efforts including planning, requirements, designs, test, and reviews must be re-done: not true. In fact, a DO-178 Gap Analysis activity will analyze the existing processes and work to re-use such processes while identifying the “gaps” to fulfill DO-178’s requirements. (The author has performed dozens of successful DO-178 Gap Analysis activities which take 2-4 weeks to perform and form the basis of the data herein.)

DO-178 also requires reviews (generally independent for Level B and mostly independent for Level A) of all software development processes and artifacts. DO-178 reviews must be per approved DO-178 checklists to ensure all required aspects are properly reviewed. To save money and time, many companies use automated project management/review tools.

Another myth is that the most significant software cost escalation occurs when moving from DO-178 Level B criticality to Level A. Untrue, but for an interesting reason. The singular largest difference between a Level A system and the Level B system is the 100x greater reliability required by the Level A system per ARP-4761A. However, that 100x reliability must come primarily from the system/hardware architecture and not the software. How? Added redundancy: the only way to meet DO-178C’s Level A reliability is via increased hardware/system redundancy which of course greatly increases total UAV cost. But the software cost difference, the subject herein, between Level A and Level B software is quite minor as seen in the figures above.

The cost differential within DO-178C is the most significant between Level D and Level C. Why? Level C requires the following key objectives which Level D does not and which results in Level C requiring 35% more effort than Level D:

  • Testing of low-level software requirements
  • Ensuring 100% coverage of all source code statements
  • Assessment of requirements, design, and code to standards
  • Greater rigor placed upon reviews
  • In many cases more rigorous configuration management

Level B requires additional structural coverage (decision-condition, e.g. all branches in the source code), additional independence in reviews, and tighter configuration management. At first glance, it would seem that Level B should be significantly more expensive, e.g. 50% – 70%, than Level C. In theory, it seems to make sense, but as in many areas of life, common sense overcomes theory. In Level B (and C) there must be detailed, low-level software requirements and they must be thoroughly tested. Remember, DO-178C requires detailed low-level requirement verification beginning with Level C and those low level requirements will cover the vast majority of software logic decisions. During requirements-based testing, most (80-90%+) of the branches in the source code are already covered and hence require no additional structural coverage testing if test capture and coverage tools are appropriately used during that functional testing. Therefore, the seemingly significant cost increase associated with Level B versus C structural coverage is already mitigated by DO-178C’s greatly enhanced requirements-based testing. Also, quality software engineering organizations already incorporate a semi-automated and streamlined process which includes independent reviews and tight configuration management; ergo the added cost of those aspects for Level B is largely mollified. The reader is well-advised to undergo upfront DO-178 Training and DO-178 Process Improvement to leverage these cost reduction techniques.

Now, “efficient” followers of DO-178B for UAV’s will find even greater cost impact in adhering to DO-178C for the newer generation UAV’s. Their “efficiency” may have been due to taking liberties with DO-178B’s intended, but less enforced, low-level requirement detail. Such shortcuts enabled less detailed functional testing with many fewer logic branches verified. While acceptable for DO-178B Level C, it’s unacceptable for DO-178C Level C which mandates greater detailed of low level requirements. Because of that greater detail, DO-178C inadvertently reduced the difference between Level C and Level B because the decision-condition structural coverage objective of Level B is largely covered already in Level C due to those more detailed low-level requirements. Also, developers making extensive use of Parameter Data Items (objects or logic external to the main application program) are now required to fully document, review, trace, and test all that data under DO-178C; something they “should” have been doing under the intent of DO-178B. Voilà.

To better understand how to apply reuse to UAV’s for DO-178C and DO-254 compliance, you just need to understand your current DO-178C gaps and DO-254 gaps and perform a UAV Gap Analysis per DO-178C/DO-254. AFuzion shows you how in a 1-minute video and also explains UAV and DO-178C DO-254 Gap Analysis – free info and video hereClick Here for DO-178C & DO-254 Gap Analysis Info and Free 1-Minute Video Explaining